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World Heritage Site :- Hill Forts of Rajasthan

The serial nomination “Hill Forts of Rajasthan” comprises six hill forts from the state of Rajasthan which inscribed on the World heritage List of UNESCO in 2013. This series includes Chittaurgarh Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Jaisalmer Fort, Ranthambhore Fort, Gagron Fort and Amber Palaces. These six extensive and majestic hill forts together reflect the elaborate, fortified seats of power of Rajput princely states that flourished between the 8th and 18th centuries and their relative political independence. These are exceptional examples of centres of Rajput power and control and are reflections of courtly culture and patronage of art and music, their mercantile business. The extensively wide fortification with several kilometer in circumference on outcrop and undulating hill terrain, specifically the rivers at Gagron, the dense forests at Ranthambhore and desert at Jaisalmer exhibit an important phase in the development of an architectureal typology based on established “traditional Indian principles”.

Jaisalmer Fort

Jaisalmer Fort is one of the largest forts in the world. It is situated in Jaisalmer city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was built in 1156 AD by the Bhati Rajput ruler Rao Jaisal, from where it derives it name. The fort stands proudly amidst the golden stretches of the great That Desert, on Trikuta Hill, and has been the scene of many battles. Its massive yellow sandstone walls are a tawny lion color during the day, fading to honey-gold as the sun sets, thereby camouflaging the fort in the yellow desert. For this reason, it is also known as the “Golden Fort”. This fort, popularly known as the 'Sonar quila' by the locals, is located in the very heart the city, and is one of the most breathtaking monuments in the locality.

Amber Fort
Amber Fort is situated in the valley of Aravalli ranges just below Jaigarh in Amber, a town with an area of 4 square Kilometers, 11 kilometers from Jaipur, Rajasthan State, India. Raja Man Singh-I started the construction in the end of 16th century. Amber Fort is a bland of Mughal and Rajput architecture in style with its large ramparts, gates and cobbled paths, the fort overlooks the Maota Lake. It is flocked by the Indian and Foreign tourists round the year.

A Historical and religious Place located 12 kms towards the north of Jhalawar off NH12 the fort was built by Dod (Parmer) Rajputs. In this fort many other constructions were done by later victorious ruler's outside fort is the Dargah of Sufi Saint Mitthe Shah, where a fair is held every year during the month of Moharram. Nearby is the monastery of Saint Pipaji, who figures amongest the chief eight disciples of Guru Ramanand and was contemporary of Saint kabir.

Kumbhalgarh is situated about 80 Km. northwest of Udaipur amidst Aravali hills in the Kelwada tehsil of Rajsamand district. Its construction is attributed to Rana Kumbha between 1443-1458 A.D. under the supervision of famous architect Mandan on the site of a still older castle which traditions ascribe to Samprati, a Jaina prince of the second century BC. The fort has ten gates with several groups of temples devoted to Hindu and Jain pantheon which includes the Ganesh temple, Neelkanth Mahadev temple, Vedi temple, Parsavnath temple, Bawan Deori, Pitalia dev temple, Mamadev temple, Golerao group of temples and Jain temples No. 1,2,3 etc.. The other monuments within the fort includes Badal Mahal, Kumbha Mahal, Birth Place of Maharana Pratap and ancient bunds, reservoirs and step wells etc.. The whole fort is encircled by a strong fortification wall having perimeter of about 10 km. with 5 m width abutting wall on the inner side of the fortification supported by a series of round bastions.

Ranthambhore Fort

Ranthambhore fort is a world heritage site which is situated in Sawai Madhopur district in Rajasthan. Sawai Madhopur is a small town, located in the eastern part of Rajasthan. Ranthambhore fort is surrounded by Vindhays and aravallies hill ranges. The name 'Ranthambhore' is derived from two hills-Rann and thambhore. The ancient fort is located on Thambhore hill which is 481 metres above the sea level. From the top of the hill some breathtaking views around the fort can be captured.

Chittaurgarh Fort
The ancient Chitrakuta occupies a place of pride in the history of Rajputs as it remained an important seat of Rajput power from the 7th to 16th cent. AD. The construction of fort is ascribed to Chitrangad of the Mori dynasty in 7th century A.D. It has been a witness to the rulers of several dynasties such as the Mori or Mauryas (7-8th century AD), Pratiharas (9-10th century AD), Paramaras (10-11th century AD), Solankis (12th century AD) and lastly by Guhilots or Sisodia clan of Rajputs and was finally abandoned in 1568 after the siege by Emperor Akbar in 1567. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180 m (590.6 ft) in height spread over an area of 280 ha (691.9 acres) above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River.
Historically, Chittaurgarh is established as an indomitable Rajput hill fort withstanding several attacks by Muslim invaders such as Alauddin Khilji in 1303 AD, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in 1535 AD and finally by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1567 AD. Each time the Rajput women and children committed the ritual of Jauhar (group immolation by the women and children of a besieged fort when the fall of the place seems inevitable). Hence, the Fort has strong associations with these sacrificial events.
hittorgarh Fort is truly an embodiment of chivalry and pride of the Rajputs. The fort has a long story of romance, courage, determination and sacrifice. A glimpse of the fort still makes one to think the glory of the Rajputs who once lived here.
Enclosed within defensive walls pierced with several gateways, the fort precinct with an evocative history is studded with major urban centers, well-designed palaces, two commemorative towers, havelis, series of temples, baori and water bodies, etc.

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