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Tamil Nadu

Dear visitors previous post I am post about all the state Union territories of india.. Now I am going to brief information about all the state and Union territories..
In this series today I am going to give brief information about Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu

Area-               1,30,258 sq.km
Population:-     72147030
Capital:-          Chennai
Language:-      Tamil





The Land of Tamils is one of the 29 states of India. Its Capital and largest city of Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the Union territory of Puducherry and the south indian state of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. It also share a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.



Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the sixth most populous state of India. the state was ranked sixth among state of India according to the Human Development Index in 2011. Since 2012, it is the second largest state economy in India with $160b in gross domestic product. The state has the highest number of business enterprises and state second in total employment in India compared to the population share of about 6%. In the 2013 Raghuram Rajan panel report, Tamil Nadu was ranked as the third most developed state in India based on "Multidimensional Development Index. Its official language is Tamil, which is considered to be the oldest written living language in the world.

The region of Tamil Nadu in modern India has been reported to have continuous human habitation form 15000 BCE to 10000 BCE. Thoughout its history, spanning the early Upper Paleolithic age to modern times, this region has coexisted with various external cultures. Except for relatively short periods in its history, the Tamil region has remained independent of external occupation.

The three ancient Tamil empires of Chera, Chola, and Pandya ware of ancient origins. Together they ruled over this land with a unique culture and language, contributing of the growth of some of the oldest extant literature in the world. They had extensive maritime trade contacts with Roman empire. These three dynasties were in constant struggle with each other vying of hegemony over the land. Invasion by the Kalabhras is said to be during the 3rd century disturbed the traditional order of the land by displacing the three ruling kingdoms. These occupiers were overthrown by resurgence of the Pandyas and the Pallavas, who restored the traditional kingdoms. The Cholas, who re-emerged from obscurity in the 9th century by defeating the Pallavas and the Pandyas, rose to become a great power and extended there empire over the entire southern peninsula. At its height the Chola empire spanned almost 1389968sq mi stradding the Bay of Bengal. The Chola navy held sway over the Sri Vijaya kingdom in Southeast Asia.

Rapid changes in the political situation of the rest of India occurred due to incursions of Muslim armies form the northwest and the decline of the three ancient dynasties during the 14th century, the Tamil country became part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Under this empire, the Telugu speaking Nayak governors ruled before the European trading companies appeared during the 17th century eventually assuming greater sway over the indigenous rulers of the land. The Madras Presidency, comprising most of southern India, was created in the 18th century and was ruled directly by the British. After the independence of India, after the Telugu, Kannada, Tulu and Malayalam parts of Madras state were separated form Madras state in 1956, it was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969 bye the state government.

Administrative Units of State:-

Districts Statistics
32
Revenue Divisions
76
Taluks
226
Firkas
1127
Revenue Villages
16564
Municipalities
125
Panchayat Unions(Blocks)
385
Town Panchayats
561
Village Panchayats
12618
Lok Sabha Constituencies
39
Assembly Constituencies
234

Agriculture:-

Agriculture,  is the major occupation in Tamilnadu. The total cultivated area in the state was 56.10 million hectares in 2007-08. The principal food crops include paddy, millets and pulses. Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chillies, gingelly and groundnut. Plantation crops are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. Major forest produces are timber, sandalwood, pulp wood and fuel wood. Tamilnadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers. Efforts are on to improve farming technologies so as to increase yields in the low rainfall areas of the state. Annual food grains production in the year 2007-2008 was 100.35 lakh mt.

Industry and Minerals:-

Major industries in the state are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto components, railway coaches, power pumps, leather tanning industries, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and safety matches. Knowlege based industries like I.T. and Biotechnology have become the thrust area in the industrial scene in Tamilnadu. TIDEL, a software technology park, has been established in Tharamani, Chennai. The Software exports form the State during the year 201-13 is expected to br around Rs 50,000 crores with an impressive growth rate of more then 10%. Top I.T. and Telecom companies such as Nokia, Motorola, Foxcon, Flextronic and Dell have commenced Production.
Global auto majors Hyundai Moters, Ford, Hindustan Motors and Mistsubishi have commenced production plants. Ashok Leyland and TAFE have set up expansion plants in Chennai. Main Mineral wealth of the state is granite, lignite and limestone. The state is an important exporter of tanned skin and leather goods, yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite. Tamil Nadu contributes to 60 per cent of the tannery industry in India.

Transport:-

Roads:- The length of roads network in Tamil Nadu is 1,93,918km.

Railways:- The total length of railways is 4181km, the main junctions being Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli.

Aviation:- Chennai being the international airport in the southern region is the main centre of airline routes. Besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem.

Ports:- Major Ports in the State are Chennai and Tuticorin. There are seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.

Festivals:-

Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thinks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is internationally famous for Jallikattu-Bull fight. Chithirai festival, Madurai brings a spectacular re-enactment of the marriage of the Pandiyan Princess Meenakshi to Lord Sundareswarar. Adipperukku is a festival celebrated on the 18th day of Tamil Month, Adi, on the bank of rivers. It marks the commencement of new farming oprations.

Dance Fastival, Mamallapuram, which is set before an open air stage, created 13 centuries ago the incredible monolithic rock sculptures of the Pallavas, next to the sea in this ancient city of Mamallapuram. Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, and Odissi are some dance forms presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances. At the Natyanjali Dance festival. the temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the Cosmi Dancer.

Mahamagam Festival is a holy festival that brings pilgrims to Kumbakonam once in 12 year the temple city that gets its name from Kumba - the divine pot. The summer festival is held every year in the Queen of Hill Stations', the evergreen Ooty, the exquisite Kodikkanal or the salubrious heights of Yarcaud. Kanthuri Festival is a truly secular festival, where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali. One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader, and is honoured with offerings. On the tenth day of the festival, the Saint's tomb is anointed with sandalwood, and later the holy sandal paste is distributed to everyone. Wondrous legends surround the church, the most famous being that of the ship wrecked Portuguese Sailors, who in the 16th century, vowed to build a great shrine for the Virgin Mary, for saving their lives in a terrible storm. The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed. Equally famous are the Virgin Mary's miraculous healing powers earning for the church the name 'Lourdes of the East'
The Navarathiri Fastival, literally means the festival of 'nine nights', taking unique and different forms in different states of India, all the propitiate the goddess Sakthi, for power, wealth and knowledge. Rows of glittering earthen lamps outside every home and joyous burst of fire crackers mark Tamil Nadu's Festival of Lights, Karthigai Deepam. In December, Chennai celebrates her priceless heritage of carnatic music and dance at its Music Festival to present a galaxy of star artistes, old and new.

Tourist Centres:-

Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kanniyakumar, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai(Monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli(Water-falls), Ooty(Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills, Guindy, Mudumalai, Anamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad(wild life sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near chennai, are some of the places of tourist interest.


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